1.4 Dynamic signs and markings


Category: Elementary music theory | Tags: Dynamic signs and markings

Dynamics are instructions in musical notation to the performer about hearing the loudness of a note or phrase. More generally, dynamics may also include other aspects of the execution of a given piece.

Dynamic signs and markings


piano piano quiet.
forte forte loud.
mezzo forte mezzo forte moderately loud.
crescendo crescendo (cresc.) gradually getting louder.
diminuendo diminuendo (dim.) gradually getting softer.



The melody starts soft (piano), gradually getting louder (crescendo) and then gradually getting softer (diminuendo) .